There is a need for more long-term studies on protein intake for people with diabetes in order to be able to make evidence-based recommendations.… Protein   

Vitamins and Antioxidants

There is a need for more conclusive evidence on the benefits of vitamins and antioxidant nutrients in terms of protection from cardiovascular disease and… Vitamins and Antioxidants   


The general population has been recommended to restrict intake of salt to 6 g/day. Normal intake in Northern Europe is twice… Minerals   

Meal Planning

There are a number of teaching systems available for meal planning but they are all subject to limitations. The emphasis should be on appropriate… Meal Planning   

Energy Balance and Body Weight

Obesity is recognised as a leading cause of insulin resistance. It therefore contributes to the development of Type 2 diabetes. This is particularly true… Energy Balance and Body Weight   

Macronutrient composition of the diet

The main dietary components of the diet for an individual with diabetes should be carbohydrate-containing foods with a low glycaemic index and cismonounsaturated fat.… Macronutrient composition of the diet   


The proportion of energy derived from carbohydrate is related to the level of fat intake. Recommendations in the past have tended to be narrow… Carbohydrate   

Sugar and Sweeteners

The diabetic diet has in the past been referred to as the sugar-free diet but many studies have shown that consuming… Sugar and Sweeteners   

Dietary Fats

People with diabetes have a two- to fourfold increased risk of coronary heart disease, and an increased risk of mortality due to the low… Dietary Fats   


Recommendations regarding alcohol consumption and diabetes currently relate to a number of different sources but focus on two main issues, hypoglycaemia for Type 1… Alcohol   

Aims of the Nutritional Recommendations

The goals of dietary advice are to achieve and maintain good health and quality of life, with avoidance and management of short-term symptoms, including… Aims of the Nutritional Recommendations   

Application of the Nutritional Guidelines

Since diabetes is a life-long disease that affects all groups of the population, irrespective of age, culture or socio-economic status, it is vitally important… Application of the Nutritional Guidelines   

Provision of services in Diabetes Care

In 1997, Diabetes UK, formerly the British Diabetic Association, investigated the provision of dietetic services in diabetes care. They carried out a postal survey… Provision of services in Diabetes Care   

The Role of the Dietitian In Diabetes Care

Ideally, it is the role of the dietitian to provide the dietetic intervention. A vital part of the dietetic consultation is the assessment of… The Role of the Dietitian In Diabetes Care   

Audit and Evaluation

Since the 1970s, the success or failure of diet in diabetes care has been based on compliance. The most important consideration being whether or… Audit and Evaluation   

Recommendations: Type 1 and type 2 Diabetes

Although the nutritional recommendations for people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are in essence the same, there may be a difference in… Recommendations: Type 1 and type 2 Diabetes   

Nutritional Recommendations in Diabetes Management -Introduction

The first position statement on diet in diabetes care was made by Diabetes UK, formerly the British Diabetic Association, 20 years ago. The recommendations… Nutritional Recommendations in Diabetes Management -Introduction   

Current Position

Recommendations will change in time as new data becomes available and consensus and views on emphasis differ. Any recommendations require careful interpretation and communication… Current Position   

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